183.- Pronombres reflexivos en inglés. B2. C1.

  Pronombres reflexivos en inglés. B2. C1.   Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes:   myself me, a mí mismo, yo mismo yourself te, tú mismo, a ti mismo, a usted mismo himself se, a sí mismo, a él mismo herself se, a sí misma, a ella misma itself se, a sí mismo, a ello mismo oneself se, a sí mismo, uno mismo (impersonal) ourselves nos, a nosotros mismos yourselves os, (a) vosotros mismos, (a) ustedes mismos themselves se, (a) sí mismos, a ellos mismos       – Los...

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182.- Will for super advanced. C1 C2.

    https://madrid-berlin-idiomas.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/5-Ways-We-use-WILL-as-a-Present-Tense-She-WILL-be-sleeping-NOW.mp4

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181.- Subjunctive in English. Video. C1.C2.

  https://madrid-berlin-idiomas.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/How-to-Use-The-SUBJUNCTIVE-in-English_-Everything-You-always-Wanted-to-Know.mp4

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180.- How to use the words ‘because’, ‘as’ and ‘since’ to give reasons.

    https://madrid-berlin-idiomas.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/kScYqFHh3HllcbHd.mp4

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179.- Direct and Indirect questions.

Direct and Indirect questions.   DIRECT QUESTIONS INDIRECT QUESTIONS   What flavour is this drink?   Can you tell me what flavour this drink is?   Why isn’t Sarah here yet?   Do you know why Sarah isn’t here yet?   Has the film started yet?   Could you tell me wether the film has started yet?   What’s the price of this car?   Could you tell me what the price of this car is?   What time does tis train leave?   Could you tell me what time the train...

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178.- 18 EXPRESIONES QUE LLEVAN -ING DESPUES DE “TO”

  To + Gerund. Advanced English.   12 EXPRESIONES QUE LLEVAN -ING DESPUES DE “TO”   I’m addicted to gambling. Soy adicto al juego I‘m used to getting up early. Estoy acostumbrado a levantarme pronto I’m committed to working hard. Me comprometo a trabajar duro His dedication to writing is inspiring. Su dedicación a escribir es inspiradora She’s devoted to singing. Está dedicada a cantar ( En el sentido de…. “Está volcada en cantar” ) He confessed to killing his boss. Confesó haber matado...

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177.- Gerundio después de to, ¿es posible?

Es importante recordar que el uso del to «obliga» a utilizar infinitivo a continuación. Pero ya debéis saber que, en inglés, rara vez se cumplen las normas al 100%. ¿La excepción en este caso? Se usará gerundio después de to cuando ese to sea una preposición. Así de claro. Porque otra cosa que sabemos es que, tras preposición, no puede utilizarse infinitivo…   ¿Cómo sabemos si to es preposición o no? No existe una norma con respecto a esto pero se pueden identificar tres posibles combinaciones, tres, en las que...

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176. ANY and SOME.

Some/Any Utilizamos some y any, cuando queremos expresar una cantidad indeterminada al referirnos a un sustantivo, pero no queremos decir exactamente cuál es esa cantidad. Al usar some y any estamos expresando la  idea de “algunos pero no muchos”. Tanto some como any se utilizan acompañando a nombres contables en plural y nombres incontables.   Some: se utiliza en frases afirmativas e interrogativas. Aunque en el caso de las interrogativas se utiliza principalmente para pedir o para ofrecer algo. Some people in the office prefer...

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175. MUCH and MANY.

Much/Many Utilizamos much y many cuando queremos expresar la idea de gran cantidad, mucho. La diferencia entre utilizar uno u otro reside en si el sustantivo al que acompañan es contable o incontable. En principio, much y many deben utilizarse en oraciones negativas e interrogativas aunque en contextos formales se usa también en oraciones afirmativas. Many: se usa con nombres contables en plural. I haven’t received many calls this morning. Hunger and malnutrition are still common in many countries. Much: se utiliza con nombres...

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174.- Conditional permission. C1.

Hypothetical / conditional permission in the present / future   Could = would be allowed to This is used to talk about permission when we want to use a hypothetical or conditional meaning. He could come late. Nobody would mind (= he would be allowed to come late). You could stay at home but then I wouldn’t be able to do all the work. If John came early to help, Lucy could arrive whenever she liked.     Hypothetical / conditional permission in the past   We use ‘could + have + past participle’ to talk about...

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173.- Verbos modales de prohibición

Los verbos modales de prohibición más comunes son mustn’t y cannot aunque may/might not y shall not también se pueden usar. Y luego tenemos la versión negativa de have to y need (to).  Mustn’t You mustn’t smoke in public buildings (Está prohibido fumar en edificios públicos).     Cannot / can’t You cannot smoke in a hospital (No debes fumar en un hospital). You can’t get your driving license until you are eighteen years old (No puedes sacarte el carnet de conducir hasta que tengas 18...

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172.- Verbos modales de probabilidad y posibilidad.

Verbos modales de probabilidad y posibilidad   Verbos modales que se utilizan para expresar la posibilidad o probabilidad de que una situación en concreto ocurra, o bien de que algo sea cierto o no.   1- Verbos modales de probabilidad fuerte: Aquellos que utilizamos para expresar certidumbre absoluta, ya sea para afirmar algo o para negarlo 1) Para expresar la certeza absoluta se utiliza el verbo must (o have to). 2) Para negar algo con certeza absoluta se utiliza cannot (can’t) en vez de must not que, es verbo modal de...

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171.- Palabras que son singular o plural en inglés. Video. First Certificate.

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170.- MUST BE ABLE TO

When we use MUST for an obligation, we cannot follow it with ‘can’ we use ‘be able to’ instead.   “When you climb a mountain you must be able to walk a long way”.   → To use the pool at the hotel, you must be able to swim. → Applicants for this job must be able to speak English. → Our new system must be able to process all the orders we get. → The new secretary must be able to organise the office well.

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169.- Prepositions of Time A2

Prepositions of Time In, at, on and no preposition with time words: Prepositions of time – here’s a list of the time words that need ‘on’, ‘in’, ‘at’ and some that don’t need any preposition. Be careful – many students of English use ‘on’ with months (it should be ‘in’), or put a preposition before ‘next’ when we don’t need one.   at times: at 8pm, at midnight, at 6:30 holiday periods: at Christmas, at Easter at night at the weekend at...

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168.-Diferencia entre «since» y «from». Repaso. B2. First Certificate.

Diferencia entre «since» y «from». Repaso. B2. First Certificate.   En español desde se usa para hablar de periodos de tiempo que han terminado, y se acompaña de hasta para indicar el final del periodo (Estuve en casa desde las 8 hasta las 9). También se usa desde a secas para hablar de periodos de tiempo que no han terminado (Soy autónoma desde 2007). ¿Y en inglés?   La teoría En inglés, usamos since o from dependiendo de si la acción ha terminado o no. From… to… Para decir desde…...

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167.- Diferencias de uso entre Chance vs Opportunity.

DIFERENCIAS DE USO ENTRE CHANCE VS OPPORTUNITY     Ambos términos significan “oportunidad” y pueden en muchas ocasiones usarse de forma indistinta.     CHANCE   OPPORTUNITY       -Es una “oportunidad” que generalmente  implica un sentido de “posibilidad”   -“Chance” también significa “casualidad”, “suerte”, “azar”, Cuando tiene dicho sentido, chance y opoortunity no son intercambiables.   There´s a 50%chance I´ll get the job. There´s a 50% opportunity...

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166.- Countable and uncountable nouns in English . A1

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165.- May vs. Might First Certificate

https://madrid-berlin-idiomas.com/wp-content/uploads/video/videos-ingles/may-and-might.mp4     May and Might are modal verbs. They can normally be interchanged without a significant difference in meaning. I might go I may go May and Might more or less have the same meaning. (We will see more about this later) With modals verbs, there is only one form of them for every subject pronoun. For example with the modal verb MIGHT. We say… I might You might He might She might It might We might They might The same happens...

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164.- To infinitive or to + gerund. C1

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163.-Diferencias entre must not y don’t have to. First Certificate

 BE CAREFUL. THERE IS A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING BETWEEN MUSTN'T AND DON’T HAVE TO​​ Mustn't It is prohibited. It is not allowed. It is important that you do NOT do something.    Don't have to There is no obligation. You are not required to do something, especially if you don't want to.  Negative Obligation ​​ Absence of Obligation You must not drink thatYou don't have to drink that.= It is forbidden to drink that. = Don't drink that, it is not allowed. = It is important that y

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162.- Cuándo puedo ( debo) omitir “that” en inglés. B2

Cuándo puedo ( debo) omitir “that” en inglés. B2     There are a few reasons why we need to know if the relative pronoun is the subject or the object of the relative clause.   One reason is that sometimes we can drop the relative pronoun. But we can only do this when the relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause. She drank the coffee that was on the table. Here, ‘that’ is the subject of the relative clause, so we can’t drop ‘that’. It is the subject of the verb ‘was’. She drank...

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161.- Try + gerund try + infinitive Advanced.

https://madrid-berlin-idiomas.com/wp-content/uploads/video/videos-ingles/Try%20%2B%20gerund%20try%20%2B%20infinitive%20Advanced.mp4   Try to do or Try doing script What are you doing? Oh, I’m trying to learn to touch type. But what are all the stickie notes for? Oh, I’m trying not to look at the keys. Good luck with that.   The verb ‘try’ can be followed by an infinitive form or a gerund and the two structures have very similar meanings. In fact they’re so similar that in some situations you can use either. Have you spoken...

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160. already, yet, still, any more. First certificate

 Adverbs:Sentence Types:+ I ?Time / Usage:time: before nowa past action iscompleted earlierthan expectedWord Order:Contexts:alreadyafter ist auxiliary verb: I've already met him.after BE: Joanne is already here.end of clause (for emphasis): You've done it already?!efficientearlyquicktimesaverunexpectedbefore 2r4 action    waiting I slow  time: up to nowend of clause: I haven't finished it yet.late / delayedyet- I ?  indecision not past or futurea future action is unfinished not contin

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159.- Adjetivs + with. Advanced.

Adjetivs + with. Advanced.   acquainted with         Are you acquainted with your classmates? annoyed with              I think my friend is annoyed with me. associated with         He is associated with a new company. blessed with               You are blessed with many talents. bored with                  They seem to be bored with school. careless with              Don’t be careless with your ATM card. cluttered with              The floor was cluttered...

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158.- Signos de puntuación en inglés

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157.- Needn’t = don’t need to. Didn’t need to vs Needn’t have + participle. C1

Needn’t = don’t need to Didn’t need to vs Needn’t have + participle Needn’t+verb and don’t need to+ verb are synonymous and interchangeable in most contexts. Bear in mind that needn’t is considered more formal/posh and is more common in the UK than the US. There is also a tiny difference in use when these verbs are used to describe present situations.  We can use both needn’t and don’t need to to give permission to someone not to do something in the immediate future.  Needn’t and...

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156.- ‘Didn’t need’ and ‘needn’t’. C2

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155.-Verbos seguidos de gerundio o infinitivo. Advance.

  Verbs+ only gerund vs. only infinitive list   1.1. Verbs+ only gerund Algunos verbos son siempre seguidos de un gerundio (verbo terminado en -ing). No pueden ser seguidos por un infinitivo. Entre este tipo de verbos se encuentran:   To admit I didn´t admit having done it Charles admits having done it.   Ahora un ejemplo tomado de las noticias BBC. Citamos la fuente   http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35850625   “A suicide bomb attack at a busy shopping area in the Turkish city of Istanbul has killed at least...

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154.- Expresiones útiles para una carta, email, oficial

Expresiones útiles para una carta, email, oficial.  Utiliza este artículo como guía de expresiones básicas. Ve utilizándolas poco a poco. Será a través del uso y de la práctica, y de las correcciones y consejos de tu profesor, como acabarás aprendiéndolas e integrándolas en tu inglés del día a día.  Te recomendamos no aprendértelas de memoria. Comienzo y final de un escrito oficial. ‘I am writing with regard to’ – ‘Le escribo con respecto a’ ‘I am contacting you to’ – ‘Me pongo en contacto con usted...

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153.- Conjunctive adverbs. C1.

Conjunctive adverbs. C1. Many of us probably use conjunctive adverbs without being aware we’re doing so. Further understanding their role aids our precision with their inclusion in our writing. Conjunctive adverbs are adverbs that connect related main (independent) clauses. They provide a transition between sentences, typically by comparing and contrasting statements or demonstrating cause and effect. They include words such as:   accordingly henceforth next afterward however otherwise also indeed plus anyhow instead similarly besides...

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152.- Hyphens. C1

Hyphens What is a hyphen? A hyphen ( – ) is used primarily to join two or more words to form a new, compound word or to provide clarity when using certain affixes (such as prefixes). Hyphens also have certain technical uses, such as indicating a range of numbers or combining multiple sets of numbers together into a single unit (as is often done with telephone numbers). Because a hyphen unites multiple things into a single element, we do not put spaces on either side of it (except in one specific circumstance known as a hanging hyphen,...

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150.-Verbos y preposiciones. Prepositions with verbs. B2

Prepositions with Verbs   Definition Certain verbs require prepositions in order to connect to their sentences’ objects. These combinations, known as prepositional verbs, allow the prepositions to act as necessary links between verbs and nouns or gerunds. The prepositions used in these combinations are sometimes called dependent prepositions. Here are some of the prepositions most commonly used with verbs: for to about with of in at on from     Usage Prepositional verbs always take a direct object (either a noun or gerund) after...

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149.-Thanks to…..B2

Thanks to…..   Thanks to God, I made it to the wedding.   O también puedes decir: Thank God   Pero NUNCA (resiste la tentación)…. Thanks God NO EXISTE….la “s” aquí sobra.   I notice these all the time with learners, so I thought I’d highlight a very common express everyone should be using correctly: thanks to… This phrase means “due to,” or “as a result of,” and it’s great for both casual and professional communication: “Thanks to the great weather, the outdoor...

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148.-Before – In front of – Opposite… first

Before – In front of – Opposite… BEFORE – IN FRONT OF – OPPOSITE   1) In front of expresses the place  where somebody is standing or waiting:  ex : I’ll meet you in front of the station at ten.  Delante /frente a/    2) When it enumerates elements from a list = before may then express a place or a time, a moment: en una lista, en una cola… quién va delante de… who comes before ex : Julie’s name is just before mine in the list. ex : I have number 16… just before you, you...

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147.-Interrogative Adjectives. Adjetivos interrogativos. First

  Interrogative Adjectives   What is an interrogative adjective? Like all adjectives, interrogative adjectives (also known as interrogative determiners) modify nouns and pronouns. English has three interrogative adjectives: what, which, and whose. They are called “interrogative” because they are usually used to ask questions. For example: “What book are you reading? “Which shirt are you going to buy?” “Whose computer is this?” In each of the examples, the interrogative adjective modifies the noun it immediately precedes:...

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146.-Interrogative Pronouns . Pronombres interrogativos. First

Interrogative Pronouns   What is an interrogative pronoun? Interrogative pronouns are used in interrogative sentences to ask questions, functioning either as the subject or object of such sentences. There are five primary interrogative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, and what. There are other interrogative pronouns as well that are used for emphatic purposes, which we’ll cover later in this section. Using interrogative pronouns Direct Questions Most often, interrogative pronouns are used in direct questions, representing the person or...

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145.- Prepositions with Nouns. Advanced

Prepositions with Nouns   Definition Certain prepositions can be used in conjunction with nouns to connect, emphasize, or provide clarification for ideas expressed in sentences. In this combination, the preposition always comes directly after the noun. Here are some of the most common prepositions used with nouns: to for of in on at from with about between Rules There is no clear-cut rule that determines which prepositions connect to which nouns; however, we can look at how synonymous nouns and associated verbs pair with...

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144.- Prepositions with Verbs First

Prepositions with Verbs   Definition Certain verbs require prepositions in order to connect to their sentences’ objects. These combinations, known as prepositional verbs, allow the prepositions to act as necessary links between verbs and nouns or gerunds. The prepositions used in these combinations are sometimes called dependent prepositions. Here are some of the prepositions most commonly used with verbs: for to about with of in at on from Usage Prepositional verbs always take a direct object (either a noun or gerund) after the...

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143.- Frases idiomáticas preposicionales. For

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142.-Frases idiomáticas preposicionales. By

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141.-Preposiciones en inglés. Prepositions

A full list of prepositions  Looking for a list of prepositions? Look no further. You’ve definitely encountered prepositions before, even if you didn’t know that that’s what they were called. They are connector words that are very frequently used in the English language. Some students learn a preposition song (to the tune of “Yankee Doodle”) to memorize many of the prepositions, but there are more than you might expect. You can find a comprehensive preposition list at the end of this article. First, let’s...

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140. Common Prepositional Errors. First Certificate.

Common Prepositional Errors.   Due to the large number of prepositions in English, as well as the fact that many prepositions serve multiple purposes, it can be quite difficult to determine which preposition to use in a particular situation. This is especially tricky for the prepositions we use after verbs. In this section, we’ll look at some common errors that arise when trying to determine the appropriate preposition to use with a particular kind of verb, as well as identifying patterns to help us make the correct choice. Verbs of...

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140.-Apostrophes  B2

Apostrophes   What is an apostrophe? An apostrophe is a punctuation mark that primarily serves to indicate either grammatical possession or the contraction of two words. It can also sometimes be used to pluralize irregular nouns, such as single letters, abbreviations, and single-digit numbers. (Note: An apostrophe looks the same as a single end quotation mark ( ’ ), so care must be used not to confuse the two.) Forming contractions When two words are combined to form a contraction, we use an apostrophe as a substitute for the letter or...

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139.- Modal Auxiliary Verbs – Might  

Modal Auxiliary Verbs – Might   Definition The modal verb might is most often used to express an unlikely or uncertain possibility. Might is also used to very formally or politely ask for permission, and it is used as the past-tense form of may when asking permission in reported speech. It can also be used to suggest an action, or to introduce two differing possibilities. Expressing possibility Si es por miedo a usarlo mal, esto te ayudará: ‘MIGHT’ se podría traducir com ‘PUEDE QUE….’  “PUEDE SER...

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138.- must

Al igual que ocurre con el verbo equivalente en español “deber”, “must” tiene muchos usos diferentes. A continuación estudiaremos cómo se utiliza cuando llegamos a una conclusión lógica. Como buen auxiliar, siempre va acompañado por el verbo básico. Paul llegó a la fiesta en helicóptero. Llegas a la siguiente conclusión: Paul arrived at the party by helicopter. You conclude: He must be loaded. ¡Cuidado! ¡Cuidado! ¡Cuidado! Para expresar una suposición en negativo, no se dice “mustn’t” sino “can’t”. Por...

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137.-Possesive Determiners

      Possesive Determiners What is a possessive determiner? Possessive determiners, also known as possessive adjectives, are a class of determiners that are used to modify nouns to denote possession. They take the place of the definite article the, and state whom or what an item belongs to. We use a different possessive determiner to correspond with each personal pronoun. The main possessive determiners in English are: Personal Pronoun Possessive...

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136.- Adverbs of Frequency  

  Adverbs of Frequency   What are adverbs of frequency? Adverbs of frequency (sometimes called frequency adverbs) tell us how often something happens or is the case; they can describe verbs and adjectives, but they do not modify other adverbs.  Range of frequency Frequency adverbs can range in frequency from 100% of the time (always) to 0% of the time (never). The following table gives some examples of different adverbs expressing the full range of frequency: Frequency Definite Adverbs Indefinite Adverbs 100% every...

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135.- Usos de “to make” en inglés

5 usos de “to make” en inglés To make no siempre se traduce como hacer. Dependiendo del contexto, tiene muchos más significados. Aquí nos vamos a centrar en cinco usos muy comunes del verbo “to make”.   1. I’m sorry, I made a mistake. Lo siento, cometí un error. Aunque no es estrictamente un error (jeje), to commit an error no suena nada natural en casi ningún contexto en inglés. De hecho noventa y nueve de cada cien veces que un angloparlante reconoce haber cometido un error, dice I made a mistake....

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134.- Causative Verbs in English: Let, Make, Have, Get, Help. First

Causative Verbs in English: Let, Make, Have, Get, Help The English verbs let, make, have, get, and help are called causative verbs because they cause something else to happen. Here are some specific examples of how causative verbs work in English sentences. How to use causative verbs in English LET = permit something to happen Grammatical structure: LET + PERSON/THING + VERB (base form) Examples: I don’t let my kids watch violent movies. Mary’s father won’t let her adopt a puppy because he’s allergic to dogs. Our...

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133.-USOS DEL VERBO TO PAY.B1

Usos del verbo to...

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132.-Semi-Modal Auxiliary Verbs C1.

Semi-Modal Auxiliary Verbs   What are semi-modal auxiliary verbs? Semi-modal auxiliary verbs, often simply called semi-modal verbs, are verbs that sometimes behave like modal auxilliary verbs . (They are also sometimes known as marginal modal verbs.) Like the “proper” modal verbs, they are used with the base form of verbs (the infinitive without to) to create a unique meaning. Dare, need, used to, and ought to Not all sources agree on the complete list of semi-modal verbs, but there are four that are widely considered as the standard...

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131.-¿Cuánto se tarda? ¿Cuánto tiempo se tarda? How long does it take?

¿Cuánto se tarda….? How long does it take….? El uso del verbo to take con el sentido “tardar”, es siempre impersonal, o sea, que el sujeto es siempre “it”.   Se tarda:: it takes Yo tardo:: it takes me   Ellos tardan It takes them.   Tardé:: it took me He tardado:: It has taken me.   Tardaste:: It took you. It has taken you.   Tardó:: it took him It has taken him.   Tardamos:: it took us It has taken us.   Tardaron:: it took them. It has taken them.   It´s taking you very long Estás...

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130.-¿Cómo pedir las cosas en inglés? B1.

Para pedir algo.   Imperativo. Una posibilidad del imperativo es dar órdenes. Explícamelo otra vez Explain it to me, once again, please.   No es mu amable. Puedes usarlo si tú estás en un grado de jerarquía en tu empresa muy superior a la persona a la que te diriges. O eres el comisario de policía y estás en un interrogatorio ante un delincuente…   Amable. Este se usa en tu casa, en la oficina, en un ambiente cordial, donde la otra persona no tiene por qué acatar tus órdenes.   Can/could/ you please explain...

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129.-Preguntas con HOW – B1.

How + adjectiv 1- how old are you? ¿Cuántos años tienes? 2. How tall is Maria?… ¿cuánto de alta es María? ¿Cuánto mide María? 3. How big is Tom´s house? ¿Qué tamaño tiene la casa de Tom?  4. How often do you see Maria? ¿Cada cuánto tiempo ves a María? About twice a week.. 5. How long have you been living in Madrid? ¿Cuánto tiempo llevas viviendo en Madrid? for 12 years 6. How cold is it in your hometown? ¿Hace frío en tu ciudad natal? 7. How expensive is that wine? How expensive is it? ¿Es caro ese vino? ¿es muy caro...

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128. Dejar en inglés

1.- Dejarse algo , olvidarse algo To leave something No puedo entrar a casa- I can´t come in. Me he dejado las llaves en el coche -I´ve left my keys in the car 2.- Dejar  a alguien, ruptura de relaciones…To leave someone Peter dejo a su novia- Peter left his girlfriend. If you leave me now. 3.- Dejar algo, depositar algo, colocar ¿ Puedes dejar la maleta  sobre la cama, por favor? – Can you leave the suitcase on the bed, please? 4.- Dejar de … ( stop + gerundio or give  coger + gerundio) Deje de firmar el año pasado I...

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127.- Gramatica inglesa .As B1

As as a preposition We use as with a noun to refer to the role or purpose of a person or thing: I worked as a waiter when I was a student. Most of us did. Not: I worked like a waiter … [The Daily Telegraph is a British newspaper] The Daily Telegraph appointed Trevor Grove as its Sunday editor. Internet shopping is seen as a cheaper alternative to shopping on the high street. A sarong is essential holiday gear. It can be used as a beach towel, wrap, dress or scarf and will take up no space in your bag. Warning: We don’t use as + noun to...

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126.- Usos de To en inglés to+ gerundio B2

to 1) USOS DE “TO” “TO” tiene dos usos: 1. Sirve para indicar el infinitivo, o raíz, de un verbo Por ejemplo: TO work- trabajar TO study- estudiar TO do- hacer 2. Es una preposición, es decir, nos indica la relación que existe entre dos, o más, palabras. En este caso, se suele traducir en español como “A”. Otro uso muy frecuente como preposición es sustituir a “in order to” que es demasiado oficial, formal: a los efectos de , con la finalidad de” “con el propósito de “… y se pone...

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125.- Tener en inglés

125.- Tener en inglés    1.- Tengo coche , tengo perro, tengo 2 hermanos.   I have a car. I have a dog. I have two siblings   2.- Tengo frio, tengo hambre   I have cold….¿ cuidado! No se puede decir I have….= poseo, soy propietario, suena horrible: hay que decir :  I am + adjetivo.   I am hungry ( estoy hambriento= tengo hambre)   3.- Tengo prisa I am in a hurry… de nuevo no se “posee” la prisa… no es “ to have”   4.- Tengo 13 años   I have….¿ Que no!…no posees…¿ Dónde tienes los 13 años? ¿ en el...

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124.- Gramática inglesa. Diferencia entre JUST y ONLY . C1.

Cómo usar JUST y ONLY en inglés  es muy difícil usar just y only en inglés…si nadie te lo aclara de manera pormenorizada.  La palabra just tiene unos 9 usos. A veces significa lo mismo de only. Pero otras veces no. También puede ser almost, exactly, y….. muchas cosas más. Vayamos al grano. ¿Os parece?  Let´s get to the point. Shall we? 1. Just = justo, de justicia. Cuando se trata de un adjetivo, esta es la traducción. Un sistema justo, un precio justo, …. A just political system takes the rights of minority groups into...

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123.- Cómo usar JUST en inglés. B2

Cómo usar JUST y ONLY en inglés (con ejemplos) Resulta que la palabra just tiene unos siete usos, y a veces significa lo mismo de only. Pero hay otras veces que no. También puede ser almost, exactly, y muchas cosas más. Vamos a ver… 1. Just = justo Cuando se trata de un adjetivo, just es justo, de justicia. A just political system takes the rights of minority groups into account. Lo contrario es unjust: I think it’s an unjust law, and I’ll call my Senator to tell him so! Pero igual que “justo” en español, just puede ser algo...

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122.- Determinantes. Determiners. B2

Determiners   What is a determiner? Determiners are used to introduce a noun or noun phrase. There are several classes of determiners:  1. articles,  2. demonstrative adjectives,  3. possessive adjectives,  4. interrogative adjectives,  4. distributive determiners,  5. pre-determiners,  6. quantifiers,  and 7. numbers. Determiners do two things. First, they signal that a noun or noun phrase will follow. Then, they give information about the item. They may tell us whether the item is general or specific, near or far, singular or...

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121.-In time vs. on time. C1

On time: .Puntual.  A su hora. A la hora prevista, anunciada.  On time= punctual, not late. If something happens on time, it happens at the time which was planned: * The 11.45 train left on time. The opposite of on time is late.   In time for something/ to do something= soon enough. Es una idea relativa, supeditada a otra: llegarás a tiempo para la cena. “In time” usually has an implicit “for (some event)” , whereas “on time” means “before some deadline”. “In time” describes an event...

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120.-Countable Nouns A2

Countable Nouns What is a countable noun? Countable nouns (also known as count nouns) are nouns that can be considered as individual, separable items, which means that we are able to count them with numbers—we can have one, two, five, 15, 100, and so on. We can also use them with the indefinite articles a and an (which signify a single person or thing) or in their plural forms . Countable nouns contrast with uncountable nouns (also known as non-count or mass nouns), which cannot be separated and counted as individual units or elements....

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119.- Conjunciones adversativas. Conjunctions of contrast. C1.

Conjunctions of contrast differences adversatives Conjunciones adversativas   a) UNLIKE = Differently, as opposed to…a diferencia de…. ex: He never interrupts people when they speak, unlike his opponent. ex: Unlike my brother, I have never driven my Dad’s precious car!     b) CONTRARY TO + NOUN/ WHAT : A diferencia de….., ……al contrario de ,…. ex: He wasn’t born in Paris, contrary to what he declared… ex: Contrary to popular opinion, he was elected easily…      c) WHEREAS/WHILE + clause =  to express a...

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118.-Conjunctive Adverbs  

Conjunctive Adverbs   What is a conjunctive adverb? Conjunctive adverbs (also called linking adverbs or connecting adverbs) are a specific type of conjunction. Conjunctions are used to join together words, phrases, or clauses. Conjunctive adverbs are specifically used to connect two independent clauses.  An independent clause (also called a main clause) contains a subject and a predicate, and it expresses a full thought. In other words, it can stand on its own and makes sense as a complete simple sentence. For...

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117.-Subordinating Conjunctions  

Subordinating Conjunctions   What is a subordinating conjunction? Subordinating conjunctions are used to create complex sentences containing one independent clause, or main clause, and one dependent, or subordinate, clause. The subordinating conjunction does two things: it introduces and subordinates the dependent clause (telling the reader that it’s less important than the independent clause), and it explains what relationship it has to the independent clause. Consider the following example: “I went to the supermarket. We were out of...

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116.- Conjunciones correlativas – Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions   What is a correlative conjunction? Correlative conjunctions, or paired conjunctions, are sets of conjunctions that are always used together. Like coordinating conjunctions , they join words, phrases, or independent clauses of similar or equal importance and structure. Unlike coordinating conjunctions, they can only join two elements together, no more. Some of the most common correlative conjunctions are: both … and either … or just as … so neither … nor not … but not only … but also whether …...

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115.- Conectors in englishB2

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114.- Rather + would rather C1

Rather, would rather C1 Rather We use rather as a degree adverb (rather cold, rather nice). We also use it to express alternatives and preferences (green rather than blue, coffee rather than tea, slowly rather than quickly).   Rather as a degree adverb We use rather to give emphasis to an adjective or adverb. It has a similar meaning to quite when quite is used with gradable words. It is more formal than quite. We often use it to express something unexpected or surprising: A: You’re not just wasting your time here, are you? B: No, I’m...

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113.- Gerunds: El gerundio.C1

Gerunds   What is a gerund? A gerund is the “-ing” form of a verb when it functions grammatically as a noun in a sentence. Gerunds are identical in appearance to present participles, but they are not used to form tenses of the verb or provide adjectival information. Gerunds can either stand alone, or they can take a noun (the object of the gerund) and/or modifier(s) to form a gerund phrase. Functions in a sentence Because they act like nouns, gerunds can be used as the subject of a sentence, the subject complement of the linking...

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112.-Comparative Adverbs – Adverbios de comparación

Comparative Adverbs   What is a comparative adverb? Comparative adverbs, like comparative adjectives, are used to describe differences and similarities between two things. While comparative adjectives describe similarities and differences between two nouns (people, places, or objects), comparative adverbs make comparisons between two verbs—that is, they describe how, when, how often, or to what degree an action is done. For example: “John is faster than Tim.” (comparative adjective) “John runs faster than Tim.” (comparative...

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111.- ASKING SOMEONE TO REPEAT SOMETHING

Would you mind repeating that? Could you repeat that, please? Could you say that again, please? I beg your pardon? Excuse me? Pardon? Sorry? I didn’t catch what you said. Come again? (informal)

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110. Near, adverbio

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109.-Adverbios de evaluación. Evaluative Adverbs

Types of Evaluative Adverbs There are several types of evaluative adverbs, which can be classified according to their function. Some give information about how certain we consider something to be, others express our attitude (negative or positive) about something, while others are used to pass judgment on someone’s actions. Some of the most common evaluative adverbs for each function are listed in the table below: Degree of...

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108.- Negative Adverbs  

Negative Adverbs   What is a negative adverb? Negative adverbs and negative adverbials (groups of words that function as an adverb) are used to modify the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb, or entire clause in a negative way. Like all adverbs, they usually answer questions about manner, place, time, or degree. No and Not There is debate whether no and not should be classed as adverbs, but they are by far the most commonly used words for creating negative statements, so we’ll briefly look at how they work. Using no We...

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107.- Para pedir algo.

Para pedir algo.   1. Imperativo. Una posibilidad del imperativo es dar órdenes. Explícamelo otra vez Explain it to me, once again, please.   No es mu amable. Puedes usarlo si tú estás en un grado de jerarquía en tu empresa muy superior a la persona a la que te diriges. O eres el comisario de policía y estás en un interrogatorio ante un delincuente…   2. Amable. Este se usa en tu casa, en la oficina, en un ambiente cordial, donde la otra persona no tiene por qué acatar tus órdenes.   Can/could/ you please explain that to...

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106.- El plural en inglés A1

Plurals   How are nouns made plural? Plurals of nouns are used to indicate when there is more than one person, place, animal, or thing. The normal method for making nouns plural is to add an “-s” at the end of the noun. For example: one boy – two boys one girl – two girls one pen – two pens one pencil – two pencils one prize – two prizes one price – two prices If a noun ends in “-s,” “-x,” “-z,” or with a cluster of consonants, such as “-sh,” “-ch,” or “-tch” (as in “watch”), we add...

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105.- In terms of

In terms of   When people writing or speaking cannot think of a graceful way to connect one part of a sentence to another, they keep inserting “in terms of.” I call it the Universal Joint of English. 

The more one thinks about in terms of, the less sense it makes. Still, this is true of a lot of idioms. In terms of is OK when used sparingly. But try listening to a radio or TV broadcaster for ten minutes without hearing at least one in terms of. Too many people overuse it; some say it twice in one sentence. The least they could...

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104.Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable Nouns What is an uncountable noun? Nouns that cannot be divided or counted as individual elements or separate parts are called uncountable nouns (also known as mass nouns or non-count nouns). These can be tangible objects (such as substances or collective categories of things), or intangible or abstract things, such as concepts or ideas. Nouns that can be divided are called countable nouns, or simply count nouns. Here are some examples of uncountable nouns: Substances Collective categories Abstract ideas or...

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103.-gone to / been to

https://madrid-berlin-idiomas.com/wp-content/uploads/video/clases-en-video/English%20Grammar__BEEN%20TO_%20or%20_GONE%20TO.mp4

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102.- AS .B2

The main uses of ‘As’ Main uses of AS: • 1.  Comparative which denotes equality:  Comparativo para igualdad to be as…. as….. o para negar la igualdad… is not as…. as He is as old as me. We are the same age. She’s wearing the same shirt as I am= We’re both wearing the same shirt. I drink as much as he does. We both drink the same amount. Your car is twice as large as mine. para indicar “ dos veces más….. que”   twice as…  as. •2  Introducing a clause: as you know= like you (already) know Como...

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101.- NUMBERS AS ADJECTIVES 1

Cuando queremos indicar de cuántas partes está compuesto algo, el número antecede a la parte (el componente) que, a su vez, antecede al todo (el sustantivo principal). Como el componente (por ejemplo “point” en el título) se está comportando como adjetivo NO LO PLURALIZAMOS. No cedas a la tentación. Por muy elevado que sea el número, el primer sustantivo no lleva “s”. El segundo, siendo el sustantivo principal, sí puede ir en plural. A subscriber recently wrote in with a question that’s a good followup to last week’s...

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100.- ADVERBIOS DE GRADACIÓN O INTENSIDAD

Adverbs of Degree.  Adverbios de gradación o intensidad.  What are adverbs of degree? Adverbs of degree are used to indicate the intensity, degree, or extent of the verb, adjective, or adverb they are modifying. They always appear before the adjective, verb, or other adverb they describe (except for the adverb enough, which we’ll look at further on.) Degrees of strength Adverbs of degree can be mild, medium, strong, or absolute in how they describe the intensity, degree, or extent of the word they modify. Adverbs that are mild,...

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99. – PLURALES- PLURALS

Plurals   How are nouns made plural? Plurals of nouns are used to indicate when there is more than one person, place, animal, or thing. The normal method for making nouns plural is to add an “-s” at the end of the noun. For example: one boy – two boys one girl – two girls one pen – two pens one pencil – two pencils one prize – two prizes one price – two prices If a noun ends in “-s,” “-x,” “-z,” or with a cluster of consonants, such as “-sh,” “-ch,” or “-tch” (as in “watch”), we add “-es” to...

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99.- Idioms that End with Prepositions

Idioms that End with Prepositions   Definition Idioms that end with prepositions are typically phrasal verbs  and consist of a verb followed by either a preposition, a particle, or a particle with a preposition. This type of prepositional idiom is used like a normal verb (describing the action of a subject) and may come at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. Examples of common prepositional idioms Here are some of the most common prepositions found at the end of prepositional idioms: up down on off with To determine the meanings...

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98.- Todos los pronombres. C1

  Todos los pronombres. C1 There are more than 70 pronouns. Here’s the full list… What is a pronoun? Pronouns are some of the most useful words in the English language. They are used in the place of a noun to avoid it having to be named twice. For example: Suzy threw the boomerang and it came back to her. In this sentence, “it” is a pronoun that represents the boomerang, and “her” is a pronoun that refers to Suzy. Without pronouns, we’d have to say Suzy threw the boomerang and the boomerang came...

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97.- Expresar intención, finalidad o propósito. In order to. So that.B1

Propósito. Para, a efectos de , con vistas a,   Formal. 1. In order to. 2. So that.   Colloquial. 3 To. 4. So     Usamos “in oder to” si no cambia el sujeto.   Tenemos que usar   “so that” or “so” si cambia el sujeto en las dos cláusulas.   I gave you my mobile number, so that you could easily contact me.   I washed my car yesterday in order to head for Málaga today.   On the contrary, it encourages judges to compete for political support in order to get elected or maintain their...

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96.- Futuro en inglés para Advanced students. C1

1. be + full infinitive We use be + full infinitive to talk about events in the future. It’s quite formal and is often used by journalists. The prime minister is to open a new factory. The motorway is to shut for maintenance. The actor is to be awarded for his services to theatre. 2. be due + full infinitive We use be due + full infinitive to talk about scheduled events. Ling’s train is due to arrive at 9:37. Jayeesh’s parents are due to leave this evening. Ivana’s exam‘s due to finish at noon. 3. be + sure...

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95.- LET ALONE / Y MUCHO MENOS.C1

LET ALONE Y mucho menos… Por no hablar de…/ y no digamos ya… Q: Can you drive a Bus? A: Are you Kidding? I can´t drive a car, let alone a Bus. P: ¿Sabes conducir un autobus? R: ¿Bromeas? No sé conducir un coche, mucho menos un autobus Q: I wouldn’t allow her to go with her brother, let alone by herself R: No la dejaría ir con su hermano, aún menos sola Q: I need to borrow 1.000€ A: I’m s orry, but’ don’t have even 100€, let alone 1.000€. P: Necesito que me prestes 1.0000€ R: Lo...

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94.- PAST PERFECT-PASADO PERFECTO.B1

Past Perfect Tense What is the past perfect tense? The past perfect tense expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past. Consider these two sentences, for example: “When she arrived at the airport, she realized she dropped her passport.” “When she arrived at the airport, she realized she had dropped her passport.” She arrived at the airport in a moment in the past, but the moment she dropped her passport happened before this past...

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93.- INFINITIVO:VERBOS SEGUIDOS DE INFINITIVO SIN “TO”=BARE INFINITIVE.C1

Infinitivo: verbos seguidos de infinitivo sin “to” = bare infinitive Infinitives   What is an infinitive? An infinitive is the most basic form of a verb. It is “unmarked” (which means that it is not conjugated for tense or person), and it is preceded by the particle to, as in to run, to read, to swim, etc. Infinitives are known as non-finite verbs, meaning they do not express actions being performed by the subjects of clauses. Instead, infinitives function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs to describe actions as...

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92.-DUE TO.B2

Due to Para decir “debido a” + sustantivo, empleamos la expresión “due to”. Ten cuidado con la pronunciación. Se dice “diu” y no “due”. Piensa en la palabra “you” precedida por una “d”. Cuando en español se dice “debido a que” + verbo, en inglés decimos “due to the fact that”. Cuando se habla deprisa la “t” final de la palabra “fact” apenas se oye. Se trata de una expresión bastante formal que se sustituye a menudo por la palabra “as”. * “that that” es...

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91.- NOMINALIZATION (CREATING NOUNS).B2

Nominalization (Creating Nouns)   What is nominalization? Nominalization refers to the creation of a noun from verbs or adjectives. Most of the time, nouns are created from other parts of speech through the use of suffixes. In other cases, the word remains the same but is simply used a different way; this is known as conversion or zero derivation. Suffixes Suffixes are certain groupings of letters that can be attached to the end of words to change their meaning. Most verbs and adjectives that become nouns are changed using...

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90.- EACH O EVERY.B1

¿Each o Every? ¿Tiene dudas alguna vez con el uso de estos dos términos? Pueden tener un significado similar, pero ¡hoy te damos todas las claves para usar each y every correctamente! Usamos each para referirnos a un objeto individual dentro de un grupo de dos o más cosas. En algunas ocasiones puede tener un significado similar a la every, pero la realidad es que every se utiliza para referirnos a un grupo o lista de más o tres cosas. Veamos un par de ejemplos: Each one takes turns cooking dinner in the evenings. En este caso each pone...

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89.- COMPARATIVE ADVERBS.B2

Comparative Adverbs   What is a comparative adverb? Comparative adverbs, like comparative adjectives, are used to describe differences and similarities between two things. While comparative adjectives describe similarities and differences between two nouns (people, places, or objects), comparative adverbs make comparisons between two verbs—that is, they describe how, when, how often, or to what degree an action is done. For example: “John is faster than Tim.” (comparative adjective) “John runs faster than Tim.”...

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88.-USOS DE “TO”.B2

to 1) USOS DE “TO”   “TO” tiene dos usos:   Sirve para indicar el infinitivo, o raíz, de un verbo   Por ejemplo:   TO work- trabajar TO study- estudiar TO do- hacer   Es una preposición, es decir, nos indica la relación que existe entre dos, o más, palabras. En este caso, se suele traducir en español como “A”   Por ejemplo:   I went TO work. Fui A trabajar. I’m looking forward TO my next holiday.  Espero con ilusión mis próximas vacaciones She’s not...

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87.-PRONOMBRES PERSONALES VS PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS.B1

  Personal Pronouns – Reflexive Pronouns   What is a reflexive pronoun? Reflexive pronouns are used when someone or something is both the subject and the object of the same verb—that is, both that which is performing the action of the verb and that which is receiving the action. When this happens, the reflexive pronoun is used as the object of the verb to show that is the same person or thing as the subject of the clause. For example, in the sentence “I heard myself speaking,” the speaker (I) is both the subject of...

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86.- SUPERLATIVE ADVERBS.C1

Superlative Adverbs. C1.  What is a superlative adverb? Superlative adverbs, like superlative adjectives, are used to describe differences among three or more people or things. But while superlative adjectives describe the highest (or lowest) degree of an attribute among a multiple nouns (people, places, or objects), superlative adverbs describe the action of a person or thing compared to that of several others—that is, they describe how, when, how often, or to what degree an action is done. For example: “John is the fastest runner of...

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85. IN TIME VS ON TIME B2

  In time vs. on time. B2 On time= puntual, a la hora establecida o prefijada, a una hora concreta. In time (for) con tiempo suficiente, a tiempo para, a tiempo de,  “In time” usually has an implicit “for (some event)”, whereas “on time” means “before some deadline”.  The “event” could be a deadline, but in that case “on time” is much more common. Examples: “I got there in time for the parade” Llegué a tiempo para ver el desfile “I delivered the...

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84. PREPOSITIONS WITH ADJECTIVES.B1

Prepositions with Adjectives   When do prepositions come after adjectives? Prepositions can sometimes appear after adjectives to complete or elaborate on the ideas or emotions the adjective describes. Prepositions used in this way are known as adjective complements. The preposition always comes directly after the adjective and is typically followed by a noun or gerund to form a prepositional phrase. The most common prepositions used alongside adjectives include the following: of to about for with at by in from Rules There are no definite...

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83.- Subjunctive. Suggest. Grammar C2. Proficiency.

Subjunctive. Suggest.   A lot of English learners struggle with the verb suggest because suggest is an unusual English verb. It is not used in a sentence the same way that other verbs are.   Suggest means mention or recommend something to think about, or something someone should do. You suggest a thought or an idea.     “I suggest that you call him.”   suggest that someone do something…. Y no someone does,,, ¡!!   This is the most difficult use of suggest for English learners to understand, so take some...

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82. TAKE ON.B2

= to accept additional responsibility To accept additional work or responsibility for a task or job. –, wanted to make a good impression so I took on two new projects at work.   = to add; to acquire=to hire To add, acquire, bring in or introduce. –Stores take on extra employees during Christmas. –Many students take on a lot of debt while they are studying at university.   = to fight or compete against It To attempt to fight or compete against someone. –Even though we are a little company- I know we can take on...

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81. MAKE VS DO.B1

Make friends Make appointment Meke a choice Make a plan Make a noise Make money Make a journey make a mistake Make a decision Make a promise Make a reservation Make a speech Make a suggestion Make the bed Make a point Make a someone happy Make someone sad Make them angry Make a difference Make a dessert Make a cup of coffee Make dinner Make a phone call Make a booking Make a proposal Make a cake Make a pass at someone Make a call Make a photocopy Make a comment Make a confexxion Make a connection Make a prediction Make a...

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79. REGRET GERUND OR INFINITIVE.C1

REGRET. Lamentar, arrepentirse…según el caso Los libros de gramática te dirán que el significado varía según se diga regret + gerundio o regret + infinitivo. Y es verdad. Cambia de significado según lo que siga. En español, Lamento haber dicho eso. En inglés suena muy bien si dices I regret having said that. Es un lenguaje oficial, de negocios, de universidad,,,, De acuerdo, está bien, pero lo más normal es: I regret saying that. ¿Lo ves? La manera más sencilla en inglés para lamentar algo que ocurrió en el pasado es usar el...

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78. LA VOZ PASIVA CON EL VERBO “TO GET”.B2

La voz pasiva en inglés con el verbo “to get” Muchas veces se usa el verbo to get en vez de to be en la voz pasiva. Veamos en qué circunstancias se utiliza. La teoría Se suele usar to get en vez de to be en un tono informal o cuando la acción ocurre rápido y de repente. La estructura es como en la pasiva con be: get se pone en el tiempo del verbo principal de la voz activa y se acompaña del participio pasado del verbo principal:   1- A mosquito bit me  (VOZ ACTIVA: el verbo principal, bit, está en pasado simple) 2- I...

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77. LA PASIVA CON “TO HAVE SOMETHING DONE”.B2

La pasiva con “to have something done” Se suele usar la estructura pasiva to have something + participio para expresar que el hecho de encargarle a alguien que nos haga algo, sin tener que especificar quién. Se puede emplear en cualquier tiempo verbal. La teoría • I had my kitchen painted. (Me pintaron la cocina.) La estructura básica es la siguiente: sujeto + to have en pasado, presente o futuro (según corresponda) + sujeto + participio pasado del verbo principal. Observa estos otros ejemplos: • She usually has her nails...

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76. LA VOZ PASIVA EN INGLÉS CON EL VERBO TO BE.B1

La voz pasiva en inglés con el verbo “to be”  La teoría La voz pasiva “directa” o “pura” se usa en inglés con más frecuencia que en castellano. Forma pura: En esta casa los platos son fregados nada más comer. (suena forzado) Forma típica en español: La pasiva refleja. En esta casa los platos se friegan nada más comer. Por supuesto que cuando se trata de acontecimientos o asuntos muy importantes, el español puede recurrir a la voz pasiva pura. El verbo “ser” conjugado + participio El acuerdo de los jefes de...

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75. CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT.A2

Concrete and Abstract Nouns All nouns serve to name a person, place, or thing. Depending on whether they name a tangible or an intangible thing, nouns are classed as being either concrete or abstract. What is a concrete noun? Concrete nouns name people, places, animals, or things that are or were physically tangible—that is, they can or could be seen or touched, or have some physical properties. For instance: rocks lake countries people child air water bread Proper nouns are also usually concrete, as they describe unique people,...

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74. ADJETIVOS CON LOS SUFIJOS FUL Y LESS.B1

Cómo formar adjetivos con los sufijos -ful y -less en inglés. Vamos a hablar de cómo formar adjetivos con los sufijos -ful y -less, que son muy frecuentes en la formación de nuevos adjetivos. Y es sencillo formar adjetivos de los sustantivos. Cómo formar adjetivos con los sufijos -ful y -less El sufijo -ful viene de la palabra “full” y significa, por lo tanto, que una cosa está llena, participa, o goza de la característica indicada. Pero fíjate que solo tiene una “L” y no dos. La palabra “full” tiene doble L pero el...

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73. NO SOONER.C1

  No sooner:: en cuanto, nada más….  than ……(en español sólo se pone coma, en inglés va separado por la preposición “than”)   Hay que observar que es una construcción especial, donde cambia el orden del sujeto y el verbo. 1º No sooner 2º Verbo 3º Sujeto….   el verbo antes que el sujeto indica, normalmente, una interrogación. PUES no es el caso de no No sooner ……   Se estudia en el apartado de gramática llamado “inversions” … inversiones.   No sooner ………. than...

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71. PHRASAL VERBS

Phrasal Verbs   Los verbos compuestos o “phrasal verbs” constituyen el aspecto más difícil del idioma inglés, tan difícil que no recomendamos que nuestros alumnos intenten profundizar en exceso en ellos.   Dominarlos a la perfección exigiría un mínimo de mil horas de práctica constante y una agilidad insólita para la correcta inserción de sustantivos y pronombres.   Normalmente existe un verbo de raíz latina o un verbo germánico estándar que pueda sustituir al verbo compuesto.   A...

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69. SALUDOS- GREETINGS. B2

Formal and informal greetings. Saludos. Hello there, Hola a todos   How are you today? I hope you are having a terrific Friday today. (acuérdate que terrific sustituye a great y significa genial)   English, just like many other languages in the world, has many different ways of greeting people or saying “Hello“. En inglés, como en muchos otros idiomas del mundo, hay diferentes formas de saludar a la gente.       Saludos (de + a – formal) Formal Greetings When you meet people for the first...

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68. AS MUCH AS.C1

AS MUCH AS Por más que, por mucho que , …aunque….= even though as much as As much as you love Peter, you´d better not marry him. Por mucho que quieras a Peter, mejor será que no te cases con él.   As much as I hate to, I must work this weekend. Aunque no soporto la idea, tengo que trabajar este fin de semana.   Tanto como….= an equal amount as much as Some women can drink as much as men. Algunas mujeres beben tanto como los hombres.   Tanto como (a) cualquier otro/ Como a cualquiera/Tanto como al...

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67. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS.A2

Uncountable Nouns What is an uncountable noun? Nouns that cannot be divided or counted as individual elements or separate parts are called uncountable nouns (also known as mass nouns or non-count nouns). These can be tangible objects (such as substances or collective categories of things), or intangible or abstract things, such as concepts or ideas. Nouns that can be divided are called countable nouns, or simply count nouns. Here are some examples of uncountable nouns: Substances Collective categories Abstract ideas or...

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66. MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS- VERBOS MODALES EN INGLÉS.B1

    Modal Auxiliary Verbs What is a modal auxiliary verb? A modal auxiliary verb, often simply called a modal verb or even just a modal, is used to change the meaning of other verbs (commonly known as main verbs) by expressing modality—that is, asserting (or denying) possibility, likelihood, ability, permission, obligation, or future intention. Modal verbs are defined by their inability to conjugate for tense and the third person singular (i.e., they do not take an “-s” at the end when he, she, or it is the subject), and they...

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65. FOR Y SUS DIFERENTES USOS EN INGLÉS.B1

FOR and its use   Use ‘for’ properly.  Eso !!! : properly= adecuadamente, como es debido, con propiedad,  como Dios manda.   For is not used  to express the aim (objetivo, finalidad) except if you use it before a noun. We went to the restaurant for a delicious meal. In other cases, with a verb, you’ll use the infinitive: We went to the restaurant to have a delicious meal. OJO !!! for+to…. NUNCA. Ejemplo Para comer con él: Has dicho  for to have lunch with him? xxxx  HORROR   I called Pepe to have...

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64. CONJUNCIONES DESPITE, IN SPITE OF, HOWEVER, NEVERTHELESS.B2

    Although. 2. In spite of. 3. Despite.   Podemos traducirlo por “a pesar de, aunque “ Usando estas conjunciones, formulamos dos cláusulas separadas por una coma.   A diferencia de   However 5. Nevertheless, que significan lo mismo , pero que separan la idea en dos frases con un “punto y seguido. No obstante, aún así.   Yet / And yet. Con todo y con eso, y aún así… Se usa para indicar un poco más de sorpresa o extrañeza que en los otros casos, pero es una diferencia...

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63. VERBS + ONLY GERUND ONLY INFINITIVE LIST.C1

    Common verbs followed by the gerund: enjoy I enjoyed living in France. fancy I fancy seeing a film tonight. discuss We discussed going on holiday together. dislike I dislike waiting for buses. finish We’ve finished preparing for the meeting. mind I don’t mind coming early. suggest He suggested staying at the Grand Hotel. recommend They recommended meeting earlier. keep He kept working, although he felt ill. avoid She avoided talking to her boss. miss She misses living near the...

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62. VERBS + ONLY GERUND ONLY INFINITIVE LIST.B2

  Verbs+ only gerund only infinitive list   Verbs+ only gerund   to admit I didn´t admit having done it Why? Charles admits having done it.   A suicide bomb attack at a busy shopping area in the Turkish city of Istanbul has killed at least four people, officials say. Three Israelis and an Iranian died, Turkish media reports. Another 36 people were injured in the blast near a government building on Istiklal Street. No-one has admitted carrying out the attack, the latest in recent months.   to avoid I sympathize...

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61. COLLECTIVE NOUNS.B1

Collective Nouns   What is a collective noun? Collective nouns are nouns that refer to a collection or group of multiple people, animals, or things. However, even though collective nouns refer to multiple individuals, they still usually function as singular nouns in a sentence. This is because they still are technically referring to one thing: the group as a whole. Here are some examples of collective nouns: group – A group is a single unit that is made up of a number of individuals, whether people or things. collection – A collection is...

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59. WHOSE.B1

Whose   Peter Shakespeare is the Man Whose Son Wants to Be a Poet.   …whose son wants to be a poet   La palabra “whose” tiene dos significados en inglés: …‘cuyo’ o ‘¿De quién…?’   Betty es la chica cuyo primo vive a la vuelta de la esquina. Betty is the girl whose cousin lives around the corner.   Rodrigo de Vivar es ese tipo de Burgos cuya empresa ha quebrado.   Rodrigo de Vivar is that guy from Burgos whose company went bankrupt.   Pronunciación de...

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58. EITHER NEITHER.B2

either...

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57. REPORTING VERBS.B2

Reporting Verbs     General information There is a number of specific reporting verbs which can be used instead of say / tell / ask. These verbs tell us something about the speaker’s intention and are a more exact way of reporting what someone says. These verbs give us the meaning of the original words without actually using them all. For example: “Honestly, I won’t be late, believe me”  →  He promised not to be late.   Let’s revise first the most important basic aspects of reported...

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56. REPORTED SPEECH.B2

Reported Speech General information Reported speech is often also called indirect speech. When we use reported speech, we are usually talking about the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past, too. For example: “I’m going to the cinema”  →  He said he was going to the cinema. Basic Tense Chart The tenses generally move backwards in this way (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right).   Other verb forms Other verb...

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55. SUBJUNTIVO EN INGLÉS.C2

Subjuntivo en inglés      You’re about to find out if you’re using some common English verbs (insist, mention, suggest, reply and discuss) correctly.   It doesn’t matter where you’re from or what your first language is (unless it’s English, of course), there are some verbs that I bet you’re getting wrong. How do I know that?Because I see it all the time! In all my (almost) 14 years’ experience teaching English, there are five verbs that I hear almost everyone get wrong … almost all the time. They...

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54. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE “SHOULD” Y “OUGHT TO”.B2

Diferencias entre “Should” y “Ought to”   En ambos casos should y ought to pueden ser intercambiados, y de la misma manera, ambos son usados para expresar “consejos, obligaciones o labores”. Aun así, existen unas pequeñas diferencias que vamos a explicar a continuación:   should Should: Se usa cuando queremos expresar una opinión subjetiva. En otras palabras, cuando comenzamos a decir algo como por ejemplo: “What I think is…”. Algunos ejemplos: You should call your parents more often. She should apologise before...

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53. SUBJUNCTIVE 2.C2

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52. SUBJUNCTIVE.C2

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51. CAN VS TO BE ABLE TO.B1

LOS VERBOS INGLESES. VERBOS CAN Y COULD Forma afirmativa e interrogativa Forma negativa Forma negativa contraida Presente can cannot can’t Pasado could could not couldn’t   Can Como puede verse, el verbo can solo tiene dos formas, una para el presente y otra para el pasado; para los tiempos de los que can carece puede usarse el verbo to be able (ser capaz, poder), que tiene conjugación completa al no ser un verbo modal:   – They won’t be able to play – No podrán jugar
- I...

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49. THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE.A1

The Present Simple...

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47. LOOKING FORWARD TO DOING.B2

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46.NEITHER Y SO : ELLA TAMPOCO…ELLA TAMBIÉN.B1

“También” y “tampoco” en inglés con “so” y “neither” Para decir yo también, tú también y vosotros/as también podemos decir: me too y you too. Pero no solemos usar too con las demás personas gramaticales: he, she, we, etc. Lo mismo pasa con tampoco. Solemos decir me neither, pero para el resto de las personas utilizamos la estructura que veremos hoy. Hoy aprenderemos a decir cosas como: Me gusta el vino, y a ella también. I like wine, and so does she. No...

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45. ENGLISH TIPS

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44.- Medios de transporte inglés. B1

Medios de transporte inglés. B1   English:   ‘The’ with public transport. First, we often use the when we are talking about a form of transport as a general idea.   Español: Pues en español, igual… Cuando contamos a alguien cómo nos desplazamos, movemos de un lugar a otro, decimos “el” o “la”… (la moto the motorcycle)   We usually do this with public transport (not with cars or bikes) and we usually use verbs such as take, be on, get on and get off: We took the bus to school. Cogimos el autobús para ir al...

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43. HORAS EN INGLÉS.A1

Horas en inglés

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42. EXPRESIONES DE CONEXIÓN 1.B2

Expresiones de conexión 1  

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41. NO ME IMPORTA

No me importa

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40. MALENTENDIDO

malentendido=misunderstanding

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39. PRONUNCIACION VERBOS. PASADO SIMPLE.A1

pasado simple en inglés  

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38. WHAT´S IT LIKE TO?.B1

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37. VERBS AND ACTIVITIES.B1

      Verbs and activities   Do you feel like+gerundio/ sustantivo?   Do you fancy +gerundio/ sustantivo?   What do you like doing in your free time? ¿Qué te gusta hacer en tu tiempo libre?   Do you feel like going for a walk? ¿Te apetece salir a dar un paseo?   To go for + substantive   1.1. singular… To go for + a(n)+ activity   Examples To go for a picnic, a drink, To go for a walk= dar un paseo   I´m going to go for a walk with Susan   Go for a run I went for a drink with...

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36. PREPOSITIONS IN ON AT

Prepositions in on at

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35. In case and if

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34. FUTURE.A2

Future with will, going to, present continuous, may might, futuro con presente simple. 1. Going to 2. Will  3. Present continuous 4. Might, may. 5. Presente simple   1. Going to se usa para hablar de intenciones y planes para el futuro que ya se tienen. Decisiones que ya se han tomado. No planes que acabamos de  I’m going to make chicken for dinner. (Ya he hecho la compra, tengo todos los ingredientes, etc. es lo que pensaba hacer para la cena,,,, no lo acabo de decidir) She’s going to visit her grandmother tomorrow. (Me lo ha contado,...

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33. HOW COME?.C1

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32. ADJETIVOS PARA DESCRIBIR LA PERSONALIDAD.A2

Adjetivos para describir la personalidad

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31. TO- TILL-UNTIL-UP TO – AS FAR AS:TIME, DISTANCE, QUANTI.B1

To – Till-until – Up to – As far as : time, distance, quanti   Here, we’re going to study varied expressions, which have apparently very little in common. Yet, they have a common point: they’re expressed with the same word in French, and perhaps in other European languages. In this English edition of the lesson, we’re not going to refer to the French expression, but rather to study what concept these expressions illustrate and what real value they have.   Thus, we’ll see how to express a...

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30. TO + GERUNDIO O INFINITIVO.C1

to 1) USOS DE “TO” “TO” tiene dos usos: 1. Sirve para indicar el infinitivo, o raíz, de un verbo Por ejemplo: TO work- trabajar TO study- estudiar TO do- hacer 2. Es una preposición, es decir, nos indica la relación que existe entre dos, o más, palabras. En este caso, se suele traducir en español como “A” Por ejemplo: I went TO work. Fui A trabajar. I’m looking forward TO my next holiday.  Espero con ilusión mis próximas vacaciones She’s not used TO London. No está acostumbrada A...

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29. vacio

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28. THIRD CONDITIONALS AND MIXED CONDITIONALS.B2

Third conditionals and mixed conditionals Conditionals are sentences with two clauses – an ‘if clause and a main clause – that are closely related. Conditional sentences are often divided into different types. Third conditional Third conditional sentences describe the past. They describe something that didn’t happen. If I’d studied harder at school I would have gone to university. He didn’t study very hard and he didn’t go to university. We wouldn’t have got lost if you hadn’t given me the wrong directions. She...

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27. CONDITIONALS.B1

Conditionals     All conditionals in 10 minutesAll conditionals in 10 minutes Zero conditional: When it´s always true If water reaches 100 degree Celsius, it boils. It´s true in any situation and under any circumstances on this planet. So we use Zero Conditional It doesn´t have to be a cientifical subject. You can be talking about a machine that always acts the same way. “If you press this bottom the machine gives you coffee if PRESENT // PRESENT First conditional Real possibilities in the future. It´s not necessarily always...

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26. PRESENT PERFECT.B1

Presente Perfecto   present perfect 1 The present perfect tense has a number of uses 1. We use it to talk aboutexperiences 1.1. I´ve worked in a lot of countries 1.2. Have you ever been to Australia? 1.3. She´s won many/ awards for her books ( a lot of?)     WHEN these things happened is not important– the focus is on the action/state, NOT when it happened   But if we say when we had the experience, we MUST use the past simple. I´ve visited Mainz several times. BUT I visited Maiz for the first time in...

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25. VERB TENSES.B1

Verb tenses

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24. CÓMO USAR USED TO EN INGLÉS : EJEMPLOS DE AFIRMACIÓN.B1

Cómo usar USED TO en inglés ejemplos de afirmaciones     Cómo usar USED TO en inglés – ejemplos de afirmaciones, negaciones y preguntas   Hoy voy a explicar cómo usar used to en inglés, para hablar del pasado. La expresión used to más el infinitivo se utiliza en inglés para hablar de algo que ocurría en el pasado, o que pasó durante un largo tiempo en el pasado y que ya no ocurre más, o no tiene validez o vigencia, ya no es cierto. Es, por así decirlo, el pasado de usually.   I used to go running three...

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23. EL ACUSATIVO EN INGLÉS. ACCUSATIVE.B1

El acusativo en Inglés. Accusative   En español cuando otra persona va a hacer una acción del tipo Quiero que Marta haga los deberes   lo expresamos con una frase de relativo (que)+ subjuntivo (haga)   En inglés traducir esto de forma directa es un completo desastre.   I want that…. NO EXISTE I want that Marta … QUE NO ¡   Vayamos pasito a pasito (step by step)   3 estructuras con want (y sólo 3)   Quiero un helado I want an ice cream (I want something)   Quiero ir a nadar I want to go...

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22. ONE – ONES.A2

  En español solemos omitir el sujeto, complemento directo o indirecto si aparecen varias veces en la oración. Pero no lo sustituímos por ninguna otra palabra; sin embargo, en inglés hay que usar “one” (si hablamos en singular) y “ones” (si hablamos en plural) en todos los casos de omisión. Por ejemplo, en la siguiente frase:         Mis perros son el negro y el marrón, hemos omitido la palabra “perro” dos veces para darle un mejor estilo a la frase inicial que era: mis perros son el perro negro y el perro...

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21. PHRASAL VERBS 1.B2

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20.ACTUALLY.B2

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19. DIFERENCIA ENTRE A Y AN.A1

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18. PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS.B1

pronombres reflexivos myself yourself (2ª singular) himself/herself/itself :: 3ª singular ourselves yourselves themselves   ¿Cuándo se utilizan?   Cuando el sujeto y el complemento representan a la misma persona… suele ser el reflexivo español… no siempre !! Cuando se quiere enfatizar el sujeto. Lo hizo él mismo. He did it himself. Te lo dirá ella misma. She´ll tell you herself.   NO SE Utilizan Cuando son acciones rutinarias y habituales. Por ejemplo, en español vestirse, cepillarse los dientes… son...

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17.SAXON GENITIVE- GENITIVO SAJÓN EN INGLÉS.A2

Saxon Genitive   Es una de las formas que se usan para indicar la posesión , casi exclusivamente CUANDO EL POSEEDOR es una persona/s o un ser animado. (* ver nota a pie de página) El color de mi mesa….., la rueda de mi coche….. no se puede usar genitivo sajón   Siempre en tercera persona , singular o plural.   1st. SINGULAR 1.1. Poseedor + apóstrofe +s + objeto poseído   Si el poseedor es un nombre propio no se lleva NUNCA “the”   El libro de Mike The Mike´s book. “el libro del...

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16. PUTTING ADVERBS IN THE CORRECT PLACE.B1

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15. WHERE DO YOU LIVE? IN ON AT.A2

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14. EVERY DAY VS EVERYDAY.B1

Every day vs. Everyday   Every day is a phrase that acts as an adverb and it describes the frecuency….. (ver en nuestra gramática, frecuency adverbs y su colocación)   1.- on all of the days 2.- on each day all of theese days :: Monday ….., Sunday. Meaning in Spanish: todos los días   Estudio inglés todos los días I study English every day   MBi puts a new Word with its definition on twitter every day.   Everyday is an adjective ¡!!! What does it mean? It describes something as, regular, common place,...

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13. USED TO Y USUALLY.B2

Usually y used to     INTRODUCCIÓN En inglés se utiliza el adverbio de frecuencia temporal “Usually” y el verbo “Used to” para hacer referencia a un hábito o rutina diaria (presente y pasada).   – Usually  es utilizado en el presente (Yo suelo…).   – Used to  se utiliza para hacer referencia a acciones finalizadas del pasado (Yo solía, antes+ pretérito imperfecto…).   A continuación vamos a ver cómo se utilizan gramaticalmente en frases afirmativas, negativas e interrogativas....

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12.FOR : SINCE: AGO.. DURING.B2

FOR :: SINCE:: AGO.. DURING   Este es un tema espinoso, no sólo entre los hispanoparlantes. Pero vamos dejarlo claro aquí, de una vez por todas (once and for all)   Paso a paso. Step by step.   1:: FOR ¿Para qué se usa? Para expresar duración. Cuánto dura una acción o la extensión de una acción como resultado. Se traduce, según el contexto, por a)“desde hace” o b)“durante” cuando en español este “durante” signifique duración, c) a veces simplemente en español no se pone preposición, porque está claro...

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11.IMPERATIVE(B1 y B2)

Imperative mode and its tags.   THE IMPERATIVE MODE  ampliación (B1 y B2)   Para nivel B1 y B2, añadimos varios aspectos al imperativo. Pero primero tienes que repasar por tu cuenta el archivo sobre IMPERATIVE QUE ENCONTRARÁS EN EL NIVEL A2 DE ESTA GRAMÁTICA   The imperative can be used in the emphatic form  ( insistence) adding  DO (which is stressed): – Do come as soon as possible! Me recuerda al español “Te digo que vengas enseguida ¡!!”.   ¿Ves qué categórico suena?   * “Always” and...

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10. IMPERATIVE (A2)

Imperative. Te lo contamos en 3 apartados para que lo entiendas perfectamente.   Para qué. Cuándo se usa Cómo se usa. Conjugación. Trucos, consejos y excepciones. Diferencias con el español.   Para qué. Cuándo se usa   Uso: utilizamos el imperativo para 7 casos principalmente. Órdenes. Orders Prohibiciones. Interdictions Peticiones, ruegos. Requests Instrucciones. Instructions Consejos. Advise Invitaciones. Permiso.   ORDERS Stand up/ get up. Siéntate. Levántate   Get out of my way. Fuera de mi...

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8. VERBOS DE ESTADO,STATE OR STATIVE VERBS.B1

STATE OR STATIVE VERBS Stative Verbs   What is a stative verb? Stative verbs (also known as state verbs) are verbs that describe a static condition, situation, or state of being. They are contrasted with action verbs (also called dynamic verbs), which describe an active, dynamic action that can be performed by a person or thing. Stative verbs can be in the present, past, or future tense; however, because they describe static conditions, they are usually unable to progress through time, and they therefore cannot be used when forming the...

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7.PRESENT CONTINUOUS PROGRESSIVE.A1

    PRESENT PROGRESSIVE. Te lo contamos en 3 apartados para que lo entiendas perfectamente.   Para qué. Cuándo se usa   Cómo se usa. Conjugación.   Trucos, consejos y excepciones. Diferencias con el español.   Para qué. Cuándo se usa Uso: utilizamos el Present Progressive o Continuous para 2 casos principalmente.   Para hablar de situaciones en curso, que han empezado pero aun no han llegado a su fin: It’s raining (Está lloviendo). Esta forma verbal se utiliza a menudo para describir...

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6.PRESENT SIMPLE.A1

Te lo contamos en 3 apartados para que lo entiendas perfectamente.   Para qué. Cuándo se usa   Cómo se usa. Conjugación.   Trucos, consejos y excepciones. Diferencias con el español.     Para qué. Cuándo se usa Uso: utilizamos el present simple para 3 casos principalmente. Verbos de estado Hábitos, costumbres, hechos que se repiten con asiduidad Relatando un libro, película de cine, chiste etc.   Primer caso: Verbos de estado (ánimo, opinión, estado civil, salud, estatura, situación,...

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5. COMPARATIVO ADJETIVO 2.B1

  COMPARATIVES   MAIN USE Comparatives are used to compare two things and to highlight the   superiority, inferiority, or equality   of one term compared to another.   SUPERIORITY a) Short adjectives: adj + -ER THAN Peter is taller than Sandra. b) Long adjectives: MORE + adj + THAN A Ferrari is more expensive than a Mini.   EQUALITY Short & long adjectives: AS… adjective… AS English is as easy as German.   INFERIORITY Short & long adjectives: LESS + adjective + THAN July is less cold...

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4. COMPARATIVO ADJETIVO 1.A2

  Introducción al comparativo y al superlativo de los adjetivos en inglés   Para entender bien las diferentes reglas que fijan la formación del comparativo y del superlativo de los adjetivos en inglés hay que tener claro qué tipo de adjetivo queremos utilizar. En inglés, .-hay adjetivos de una sílaba (tall), .-adjetivos de dos sílabas (boring), .- y adjetivos de tres o más sílabas (interesting, disorganised). El número de sílabas de un adjetivo es muy importante a la hora de construir su forma comparativa o...

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3.PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS EN INGLÉS.A2

    Pronombres posesivos en Inglés   Hay también una serie de pronombres posesivos que sustituyen a la construcción adjetivo posesivo + nombre: It’s my car. // It’s mine. It’s your car. // It’s yours. It’s his car. // It’s his. It’s her car. // It’s hers. It’s its ball. // It’s its. (el perro tiene una pelota que no es mía… it´s its.) It’s our car. // It’s ours. It’s your car. // It’s yours. It’s their car. // It’s theirs.   Traducción: Mine = El mío. 2 Mío. La mía.4. Mía. Los...

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2. PRONOMBRES SUJETO Y OBJETO. A1

Los pronombres sujeto y los pronombres complemento en inglés   Los pronombres sujeto son I, you, he, she, it, we , they. Como sabéis en inglés el sujeto tiene que ser siempre expresamente indicado, no se puede omitir. A diferencia del español, donde el sujeto no se suele decir, ya que el verbo incorpora información sobre el protagonista de la acción. Una frase como Am happy no es gramaticalmente correcta en inglés. El sujeto tiene que ser explícito: I am happy. Hay una excepción – cuando la frase es imperativa: Come...

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1. ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS – POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. A1

Adjetivos Posesivos   my book my books= mis libros My no cambia del singular al plural my brother my sister my no cambia de masculino al femenino.   your = tu posesivo    NO CONFUNDIR CON tú ( con acento= sujeto) tú tienes, tú eres You have a dog your brother = tu hermano your brothers tus hermanos your no cambia del singular al plural   his dog his dogs   her arm her arms   our car our cars   their dog su perro their dogs sus perros       Posesive adjectives (en inglés se llaman adjetivos...

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